Having healthy hair and a nourished scalp is not only aesthetically pleasing but also plays a crucial role in our overall well-being. Hair is often considered a symbol of beauty and vitality, and a healthy scalp provides a strong foundation for healthy hair growth.
In this guide, we will explore various tips and practices to help you maintain healthy hair and a well-nourished scalp. From understanding the structure and function of hair and scalp to implementing a daily hair care routine, we will cover a wide range of topics to guide you towards optimal hair and scalp health.
How to understanding hair and scalp?
Here are some key points to help you better understand your hair and scalp.
Hair Structure and Growth Cycle:
- Hair is composed mainly of a protein called keratin, which is produced by hair follicles located in the scalp.
- Each hair strand consists of three main layers: the cuticle (outermost layer), the cortex (middle layer), and the medulla (innermost layer).
- The hair growth cycle consists of three phases: anagen (growth phase), catagen (transitional phase), and telogen (resting phase). Understanding this cycle can help you better manage hair-related concerns.
Scalp Anatomy and Function:
- The scalp is the skin on the top of your head that covers the underlying skull. It contains numerous hair follicles.
- The scalp is rich in sebaceous glands, which produce sebum, a natural oil that moisturizes and protects the hair and scalp.
- The scalp also has blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the hair follicles, promoting healthy hair growth.
Hair and Scalp Types:
- Hair types vary based on factors such as texture (straight, wavy, curly, etc.) and density (thin, medium, thick).
- Scalp types can be classified as normal, dry, oily, or a combination of these. Understanding your scalp type helps in selecting appropriate hair care products.
Hair and Scalp pH:
- The pH balance of your hair and scalp plays a significant role in their health. The ideal pH range is slightly acidic (around 4.5 to 5.5) to maintain the natural protective barrier.
- Excessive use of alkaline or harsh hair care products can disrupt the pH balance and lead to various issues.
What is the importance of healthy hair and scalp?
Here are several reasons why maintaining their health is crucial.
- Enhanced Self-Confidence: Healthy hair and a well-nourished scalp contribute to an individual’s self-image and self-esteem. When your hair looks and feels good, it boosts your confidence and overall sense of well-being.
- Protection and Insulation: Hair acts as a natural barrier, protecting the scalp from external factors such as UV rays, dust, pollutants, and temperature variations. It helps to insulate the scalp, keeping it warm in colder climates and preventing heat loss.
- Hair Growth and Thickness: A healthy scalp provides an optimal environment for hair growth. When the scalp is nourished and free from issues such as dandruff or excess oiliness, it promotes healthier hair follicles and supports robust hair growth. Additionally, a nourished scalp can contribute to thicker, fuller-looking hair.
- Scalp Health: The condition of the scalp directly affects the health of the hair. A healthy scalp helps maintain the natural moisture balance, reduces the risk of scalp issues like dryness, itchiness, or dandruff, and minimizes the chances of scalp infections or inflammations.
- Styling and Versatility: Healthy hair is more manageable and responsive to styling. It is easier to achieve various hairstyles, experiment with different looks, and maintain hair health while using heat styling tools or chemical treatments.
- Longevity of Hair: By adopting healthy hair care practices, you can prolong the life of your hair strands, minimizing damage and breakage. This can help you retain length and prevent premature thinning or hair loss.
- Overall Well-Being: Taking care of your hair and scalp can contribute to your overall well-being. The rituals involved in hair care, such as massaging the scalp or pampering your hair, can provide relaxation, reduce stress, and improve blood circulation in the scalp.
- Early Detection of Health Issues: Changes in the hair and scalp can sometimes indicate underlying health conditions. Regularly monitoring the condition of your hair and scalp may help identify potential health concerns, such as hormonal imbalances, nutrient deficiencies, or certain medical conditions, prompting timely medical intervention.
Daily Hair Care Routine:
Here are some key steps to include in your routine.
Choose the Right Shampoo and Conditioner:
- Select a shampoo and conditioner that are suitable for your hair type and scalp condition. Consider factors such as oily scalp, dryness, or specific concerns like dandruff or color-treated hair.
- Avoid shampoos with harsh sulfates or conditioners that contain heavy silicones, as they can strip away natural oils or weigh down your hair.
Proper Techniques for Washing and Rinsing:
- Wet your hair thoroughly with lukewarm water before applying shampoo.
- Gently massage the shampoo into your scalp using your fingertips, focusing on the roots, and work the lather through the lengths of your hair.
- Rinse your hair thoroughly to ensure all shampoo residue is removed.
- Apply conditioner to the lengths and ends of your hair, avoiding the scalp, and leave it on for the recommended time before rinsing.
Towel-Drying and Combing:
- After rinsing, gently squeeze out excess water from your hair using a soft towel. Avoid rough towel-drying, as it can lead to frizz and damage.
- Use a wide-toothed comb or a detangling brush to gently remove any knots or tangles, starting from the ends and working your way up to minimize breakage.
Nourishing Your Hair from Within:
- Maintain a balanced diet rich in vitamins, minerals, and proteins to support healthy hair growth. Include foods like fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats.
- Stay hydrated by drinking an adequate amount of water throughout the day, as hydration is important for hair health.
Protecting Your Hair:
- Minimize the use of heat styling tools such as flat irons, curling irons, or blow dryers. When using heat, apply a heat protectant spray to minimize damage.
- Limit chemical treatments such as perming, relaxing, or excessive hair dyeing, as they can weaken the hair structure and lead to damage.
- Protect your hair from UV rays by wearing a hat or using hair products that contain UV protection when exposed to the sun for extended periods.
Avoiding Common Hair Issues:
- Maintain a clean and healthy scalp by regularly washing your hair. However, avoid over-washing, as it can strip away natural oils and lead to dryness.
- Address specific concerns like dandruff or oily scalp by using specialized shampoos or treatments recommended by a dermatologist or trichologist.
Nourishing Your Hair from Within:
Here are some tips to help you nourish your hair from the inside out.
- Include a variety of nutrient-rich foods in your diet to support hair health. This includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
- Incorporate foods rich in vitamins such as vitamin A, C, E, and B-complex vitamins (biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid), as well as minerals like zinc, iron, and selenium.
- Opt for foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids, such as fatty fish (salmon, mackerel), flaxseeds, chia seeds, and walnuts, which help nourish the hair follicles.
- Adequate Hydration: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to stay hydrated. Hydration is essential for maintaining the moisture balance of your scalp and hair.
- Protein-Rich Foods: Hair is primarily composed of a protein called keratin. Include protein-rich foods like lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, and dairy products in your diet to provide the building blocks for healthy hair growth.
Essential Nutrients for Hair Health:
- Vitamin A promotes the production of sebum, a natural oil that keeps the scalp moisturized. Find it in foods like carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and mangoes.
- Vitamin C aids in collagen production and iron absorption, both of which are essential for healthy hair. Citrus fruits, berries, kiwi, and bell peppers are good sources.
- Vitamin E is an antioxidant that helps protect the hair follicles. Include nuts, seeds, avocados, and spinach in your diet.
- Biotin is a B-vitamin that plays a vital role in hair growth and strength. You can find it in foods like eggs, nuts, whole grains, and sweet potatoes.
- Iron helps carry oxygen to the hair follicles. Incorporate iron-rich foods such as leafy greens, beans, fortified cereals, and lean meats.
- Zinc supports hair growth and repair. Include zinc-rich foods like oysters, pumpkin seeds, beef, and lentils in your diet.
- Supplements and Vitamins: Consult with a healthcare professional before considering any supplements or vitamins for hair health. They can help determine if you have any deficiencies and recommend appropriate supplements if necessary.
Protecting Your Hair:
Here are some tips to help protect your hair.
- Heat Styling: Minimize the use of heat styling tools such as flat irons, curling irons, and blow dryers. Excessive heat can damage the hair shaft and lead to dryness and breakage. If you must use heat styling tools, apply a heat protectant spray or serum to your hair before styling. This helps to create a barrier and minimize heat damage.
- Chemical Treatments: Limit the use of harsh chemical treatments such as perming, relaxing, or excessive hair dyeing. These treatments can weaken the hair structure and lead to damage. If you do choose to color or chemically treat your hair, consider opting for less damaging options like ammonia-free hair dyes or semi-permanent dyes. It’s important to follow the instructions carefully and give your hair proper care afterward.
- Sun and Environmental Protection: Protect your hair from the sun’s harmful UV rays by wearing a hat, scarf, or using hair products that contain UV protection. UV exposure can lead to dryness, color fading, and weakened hair. When swimming in chlorinated pools or saltwater, wet your hair and apply a protective leave-in conditioner or oil to create a barrier against the damaging effects of chlorine and salt.
- Gentle Handling: Avoid rough handling and excessive pulling or brushing, as it can lead to hair breakage and damage. Use a wide-toothed comb or a detangling brush to gently remove knots and tangles. When tying your hair, use hair-friendly accessories like fabric-covered or spiral hair ties to minimize pulling and breakage.
- Protective Hairstyles: Opt for protective hairstyles that minimize manipulation and tension on the hair, such as braids, buns, or updos. These styles can help protect the ends of your hair and prevent breakage. Avoid hairstyles that pull tightly on the hair, like tight ponytails, buns, or extensions, as they can cause hair breakage and traction alopecia.
- Regular Trims: Schedule regular trims every 8 to 12 weeks to remove split ends and prevent them from traveling up the hair shaft. This helps maintain the overall health and appearance of your hair.
- Proper Sleep Care: Protect your hair while sleeping by using a satin or silk pillowcase or wrapping your hair in a silk or satin scarf or bonnet. These materials help minimize friction and prevent hair breakage.
Avoiding Common Hair Issues:
Here are some tips to help you prevent or address these concerns.
Dandruff and Dry Scalp:
- Use a gentle, moisturizing shampoo and conditioner to prevent excessive dryness of the scalp.
- Avoid hot water while washing your hair, as it can strip away natural oils and exacerbate dryness.
- Incorporate scalp exfoliation into your routine to remove dead skin cells and promote a healthier scalp. Use a gentle exfoliating scalp scrub or brush.
Oily Scalp and Greasy Hair:
- Wash your hair regularly with a mild shampoo to remove excess oil and buildup from the scalp.
- Avoid over-washing your hair, as it can strip away too much natural oil, leading to increased oil production.
- Use lightweight and oil-free hair care products to minimize the greasy appearance of the hair.
- Consider using dry shampoo between washes to absorb excess oil and refresh your hair.
Frizz and Flyaways:
- Keep your hair well-moisturized and nourished by using hydrating shampoos, conditioners, and leave-in treatments.
- Avoid using heat styling tools frequently, as they can contribute to frizz. Opt for air-drying or using lower heat settings when possible.
- Use anti-frizz serums or hair oils to tame frizz and flyaways. Apply a small amount to the ends of your hair and work upward.
- Trim your hair regularly to remove split ends and prevent them from traveling up the hair shaft. Aim for a trim every 8 to 12 weeks.
- Avoid excessive heat styling and harsh chemical treatments, as they can contribute to split ends.
- Use leave-in conditioners or hair serums to keep your hair well-moisturized and minimize the risk of split ends.
Hair Loss and Breakage:
- Handle your hair gently, especially when it’s wet, as wet hair is more prone to breakage. Use a wide-toothed comb or a detangling brush to remove knots and tangles.
- Avoid tight hairstyles that put tension on the hair, such as tight ponytails or braids, as they can cause hair breakage and traction alopecia.
- Maintain a balanced diet and ensure you’re getting adequate nutrients, as deficiencies can contribute to hair loss. If concerned, consult with a healthcare professional.
Scalp Infections and Irritations:
- Keep your scalp clean and avoid excessive scratching or picking. Be mindful of any cuts or wounds on the scalp to prevent infections.
- Avoid sharing hair tools or accessories, as they can spread infections or scalp conditions.
- If you have persistent scalp issues, such as itchiness, redness, or flaking, consult a dermatologist or trichologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Scalp Care and Massage:
Here’s some information on scalp care and the benefits of scalp massage.
Importance of Scalp Care:
- Clean and Balanced Scalp: Regular scalp care helps maintain a clean and balanced scalp environment. It removes dirt, excess oil, and product buildup, reducing the risk of scalp issues such as dandruff or itching.
- Improved Blood Circulation: Scalp care promotes blood circulation to the hair follicles, delivering vital nutrients and oxygen to support healthy hair growth.
- Removal of Dead Skin Cells: Exfoliating the scalp helps remove dead skin cells and unclog hair follicles, allowing for proper hair growth.
- Sebum Regulation: Proper scalp care helps regulate sebum production, preventing an excessively oily or dry scalp.
Benefits of Scalp Massage:
- Stress Reduction: Scalp massage can provide relaxation and stress relief, helping to alleviate tension and promote a sense of well-being.
- Increased Blood Flow: Massage improves blood circulation in the scalp, which nourishes the hair follicles and supports healthy hair growth.
- Improved Nutrient Absorption: Massage helps enhance the absorption of nutrients into the hair follicles, aiding in the delivery of essential vitamins and minerals.
- Detoxification: Scalp massage can stimulate lymphatic drainage, assisting in the removal of toxins and waste products from the scalp.
- Hair Stimulation: Massage techniques like kneading or tapping can stimulate the hair follicles, promoting hair growth and thickness.
Tips for Scalp Care and Massage:
- Choose the Right Products: Select gentle and scalp-friendly shampoos, conditioners, and styling products that suit your scalp type and concerns.
- Regular Cleansing: Cleanse your scalp regularly to remove dirt, oil, and buildup. Massage the scalp gently using your fingertips in a circular motion while washing.
- Exfoliation: Incorporate scalp exfoliation once or twice a month to remove dead skin cells. Use a scalp scrub or a soft brush specifically designed for scalp exfoliation.
- Oil Treatments: Apply natural oils like coconut oil, almond oil, or jojoba oil to your scalp and hair. Massage the oil into your scalp to moisturize and nourish the hair follicles.
- Massage Techniques: Use your fingertips or a scalp massager to gently massage your scalp in circular motions, moving from the front to the back of your head. Apply light to moderate pressure, avoiding excessive force.
- Frequency: Aim to incorporate scalp massage into your routine at least once or twice a week. You can do it before shampooing, during the application of hair masks, or as a separate practice.
Natural Remedies for Hair and Scalp Health:
Here are some popular natural remedies that you can try.
- Aloe Vera: Aloe vera has soothing and moisturizing properties that can help alleviate scalp dryness and itchiness. Apply fresh aloe vera gel directly to your scalp, leave it on for about 30 minutes, and then rinse it off with lukewarm water. Repeat as needed.
- Tea Tree Oil: Tea tree oil has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that can help combat dandruff and relieve scalp irritation. Dilute a few drops of tea tree oil in a carrier oil (such as coconut oil or jojoba oil) and gently massage it into your scalp. Leave it on for 30 minutes to an hour before shampooing.
- Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple cider vinegar can help balance the pH of the scalp, remove buildup, and improve the overall health of your hair and scalp. Mix one part apple cider vinegar with two parts water. After shampooing, pour the mixture onto your scalp, massage it in, and let it sit for a few minutes before rinsing thoroughly.
- Coconut Oil: Coconut oil is rich in fatty acids that can help nourish the hair and scalp, improve moisture retention, and reduce protein loss. Warm up coconut oil and apply it to your scalp and hair. Gently massage it in and leave it on for a few hours or overnight before shampooing.
- Rosemary Oil: Rosemary oil is believed to promote hair growth and improve scalp health. It has stimulating properties that can enhance blood circulation to the scalp. Mix a few drops of rosemary oil with a carrier oil and massage it into your scalp. Leave it on for at least 30 minutes or overnight before washing your hair.
- Green Tea: Green tea is rich in antioxidants that can help protect the hair follicles and promote a healthy scalp. Brew green tea, let it cool, and use it as a final rinse after shampooing. Pour it over your hair and scalp, leave it on for a few minutes, and then rinse with water.
Styling Tips for Healthy Hair:
Here are some styling tips to consider.m
- Limit Heat Styling: Minimize the use of heat styling tools such as flat irons, curling irons, and blow dryers. Excessive heat can damage the hair shaft, leading to dryness, breakage, and split ends. If you must use heat styling tools, use them on the lowest heat setting possible and apply a heat protectant spray or serum beforehand to minimize damage.
- Air-Dry or Low-Heat Drying: Allow your hair to air-dry whenever possible to minimize exposure to heat. If you need to use a blow dryer, opt for the low-heat or cool setting to reduce damage. Pat your hair gently with a soft towel to remove excess moisture rather than rubbing vigorously, as this can cause friction and potential breakage.
- Protective Hairstyles: Opt for protective hairstyles that minimize manipulation and tension on the hair, reducing the risk of breakage and damage. Examples include braids, buns, twists, or updos. Avoid hairstyles that pull tightly on the hair, like tight ponytails, buns, or extensions, as they can cause hair breakage and traction alopecia.
- Gentle Brushing and Combing: Use a wide-toothed comb or a detangling brush with flexible bristles to gently remove knots and tangles. Start from the ends of your hair and work your way up to minimize breakage. Avoid brushing wet hair, as it is more prone to breakage. If necessary, use a wide-toothed comb or a brush specifically designed for wet hair to detangle gently.
- Hair-Friendly Accessories: Choose hair accessories made from materials that minimize friction and damage, such as fabric-covered or spiral hair ties, soft scrunchies, or satin/silk hairbands. Avoid using accessories with metal clasps or tight rubber bands, as they can cause hair breakage and create tension on the hair strands.
- Use Minimal Hair Products: Avoid overloading your hair with excessive styling products, as they can weigh it down and make it look greasy. Use only the necessary amount for your desired style. Opt for lightweight, water-based or oil-free hair products that won’t leave residue or buildup on the hair and scalp.
- Regular Trims: Schedule regular trims every 8 to 12 weeks to remove split ends and prevent them from traveling up the hair shaft. This helps maintain the overall health and appearance of your hair.
Professional Hair Care:
Here are some key aspects of professional hair care to consider.
Regular Haircuts and Trims:
- Schedule regular appointments with a professional hairstylist or barber for haircuts and trims. This helps to remove split ends, maintain shape, and promote healthy hair growth.
- A hairstylist can also provide personalized advice on the best haircut or style that suits your hair type, face shape, and lifestyle.
Visiting a Dermatologist or Trichologist:
- If you have persistent or severe hair and scalp issues, consider consulting with a dermatologist or trichologist.
- These professionals specialize in diagnosing and treating various scalp conditions, hair loss, or other underlying issues that may affect the health of your hair and scalp.
Deep Conditioning and Treatments:
- Professional salons offer deep conditioning treatments that can provide intense hydration and nourishment to your hair.
- These treatments can help repair damage, improve hair texture, and restore moisture balance. Consult with your hairstylist to determine which treatment is suitable for your hair’s specific needs.
Color and Chemical Treatments:
- If you’re considering hair coloring or chemical treatments, it’s advisable to seek professional assistance.
- Professional hair colorists can assess your hair condition, recommend appropriate colors or treatments, and minimize the risk of damage or uneven results.
- They also have the expertise to apply products correctly and safely, ensuring the best outcome while maintaining hair health.
Scalp Analysis and Treatments:
- Professional salons often offer scalp analysis services to evaluate the condition of your scalp and hair follicles.
- Based on the analysis, the stylist can recommend specific treatments or products to address scalp issues, promote scalp health, and support healthy hair growth.
Expert Advice and Product Recommendations:
- Professional hairstylists are knowledgeable about various hair types, textures, and concerns.
- They can provide personalized advice on hair care routines, suitable products, and styling techniques that best suit your hair and scalp needs.
- Professional salons may offer additional services such as hair extensions, hair spa treatments, or specialty styling for special occasions.
- These services are performed by trained professionals who can provide optimal care and expertise in achieving your desired look while minimizing damage.
Here are some lifestyle tips to consider for maintaining healthy hair.
- Follow a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals essential for hair health. Include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats in your meals.
- Ensure you’re getting adequate amounts of vitamins A, C, E, and B-complex vitamins, as well as minerals like zinc, iron, and selenium.
- Drink plenty of water throughout the day to stay hydrated. Proper hydration is essential for maintaining the moisture balance of your scalp and hair.
- High stress levels can contribute to hair loss and scalp issues. Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as practicing relaxation techniques, engaging in physical activity, or seeking support from friends, family, or professionals.
- Getting enough quality sleep is crucial for overall well-being, including the health of your hair. Aim for 7-8 hours of uninterrupted sleep each night.
Avoid Smoking and Excessive Alcohol Consumption:
- Smoking can restrict blood flow to the hair follicles and contribute to hair loss. Excessive alcohol consumption can dehydrate your body and negatively impact hair health.
- Minimize or quit smoking altogether and consume alcohol in moderation.
- Protect your hair from environmental factors such as harsh sunlight, extreme temperatures, and pollutants. Wear hats or use hair products with UV protection when exposed to the sun for prolonged periods.
- Minimize exposure to chlorine in pools or saltwater by wetting your hair beforehand and using protective leave-in conditioners.
- Be gentle when handling your hair. Avoid excessive pulling, tugging, or harsh brushing, as it can lead to breakage and damage.
- Use a wide-toothed comb or a detangling brush to remove knots and tangles, starting from the ends and working your way up.
Avoid Tight Hairstyles:
- Avoid hairstyles that put excessive tension on the hair, like tight ponytails, braids, or buns. These can lead to hair breakage and traction alopecia.
- Opt for looser hairstyles and give your hair breaks from tight styles to allow it to rest and recover.
How often should I wash my hair?
The frequency of hair washing depends on your hair type, scalp condition, and personal preference. Generally, it is recommended to wash your hair every 2-3 days for most hair types. However, if you have an oily scalp, you may need to wash more frequently, while those with dry or curly hair may benefit from less frequent washing.
How can I promote hair growth?
To promote hair growth, maintain a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals, particularly those essential for hair health such as biotin, vitamin E, and iron. Take care of your scalp through regular cleansing, gentle massage, and avoiding excessive heat styling or chemical treatments. Additionally, minimize stress levels, get enough sleep, and avoid any habits that may contribute to hair damage or breakage.
Is it normal to lose hair every day?
Yes, it is normal to lose some hair every day as part of the natural hair growth cycle. On average, people may lose around 50-100 hairs daily. However, if you notice excessive hair shedding, significant thinning, or bald patches, it may be a sign of an underlying issue, and it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation.
Can certain hairstyles cause hair loss?
Yes, certain hairstyles that involve excessive tension or pulling on the hair can contribute to hair loss or traction alopecia. Styles like tight ponytails, braids, buns, or extensions can put stress on the hair follicles, leading to hair breakage and thinning over time. It is important to balance hairstyles and give your hair regular breaks from tight styles to prevent damage.
How can I prevent split ends?
To prevent split ends, ensure regular trims every 8-12 weeks to remove the damaged ends. Minimize heat styling and chemical treatments, as they can weaken the hair and contribute to split ends. Protect your hair from environmental factors, use a wide-toothed comb or brush to detangle gently, and keep your hair moisturized and well-nourished with conditioning treatments or oils.
Can diet affect the health of my hair?
Yes, your diet plays a crucial role in the health of your hair. A balanced diet that includes essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals is important for promoting healthy hair growth and strength. Incorporate foods rich in proteins, vitamins (such as A, C, E, and B-complex), and minerals (like zinc, iron, and selenium) to support optimal hair health.
Is it necessary to use hair products specifically designed for my hair type?
While it’s not absolutely necessary, using hair products formulated for your specific hair type can be beneficial. Hair products tailored to your hair type and concerns can provide targeted benefits and help address specific issues. For example, if you have oily hair, using a clarifying shampoo designed for oily scalp can help control excess oil. However, it’s important to assess your hair’s needs and experiment to find the products that work best for you.
In conclusion, maintaining healthy hair and scalp is essential for both aesthetics and overall well-being. By understanding the structure and functions of hair and scalp, implementing a daily hair care routine, and considering lifestyle factors such as nutrition and stress management, you can promote the health and vitality of your hair. Additionally, incorporating professional hair care services, seeking expert advice, and utilizing natural remedies when appropriate can further enhance the health and appearance of your hair. Remember, everyone’s hair is unique, so it’s important to listen to your hair’s needs and adapt your routine accordingly. With consistent care and attention, you can enjoy healthy, beautiful hair and a nourished scalp.